Turbulent flows, with emphasis on engineering methods. Governing equations for momentum, energy, and species transfer.
Turbulence: its production, dissipation, and scaling laws. Reynolds averaged equations for momentum, energy, and species transfer. Simple closure approaches for free and bounded turbulent shear flows. Applications to jets, pipe and channel flows, boundary layers, buoyant plumes and thermals, and Taylor dispersion, etc., including heat and species transport as well as flow fields. Introduction to more complex closure schemes, including the k-epsilon, and statistical methods in turbulence.