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oncology understanding cancer biology diagnosis treatments Coupon
Teaching & Academics

[-96% Off] oncology understanding cancer biology diagnosis treatments Course Coupon

Updated: by Anonymouse

oncology basics

2.0 hr
45$ 22.99$
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Cancer biology is a rapidly evolving field, and new discoveries are constantly being made. As our understanding of cancer biology grows, so too does our ability to fight this disease.

cancer biology is the study of the biological processes that underlie cancer development. It's a vast field that encompasses everything from the genetic mutations that can initiate cancer to the complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding tissues.

understanding the hallmarks of cancer, researchers can better develop strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat this devastating disease

the incidence and etiology of cancer.

Cancer is a major health issue globally, and its incidence is a critical concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer accounted for nearly 10 million deaths in 2020, making it a leading cause of death worldwide1. The most common cancers that year were breast, lung, colon and rectum, and prostate cancers1.

The global cancer burden has continued to grow, with an estimated 19.3 million new cases and 10.0 million deaths in 20202. It’s reported that one in five people worldwide develop cancer during their lifetime, and the risk of dying from cancer is one in eight for men and one in eleven for women2.

Key factors contributing to cancer incidence include tobacco use, high body mass index, alcohol consumption, low fruit and vegetable intake, and lack of physical activity.

cancer types   

  1. Breast Cancer: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers, affecting both men and women. In 2020, there were approximately 2.26 million new cases of breast cancer worldwide.

  2. Lung Cancer: Lung cancer ranks second in terms of new cases, with around 2.21 million cases reported in 2020. It is closely associated with tobacco use and exposure to carcinogens.

  3. Colon and Rectum Cancer: This type of cancer affects the large intestine and rectum. In 2020, there were approximately 1.93 million new cases globally.

  4. Prostate Cancer: Prostate cancer primarily affects men. It accounted for about 1.41 million new cases in 2020.

  5. Skin Cancer (Non-Melanoma): Skin cancer, excluding melanoma, had around 1.20 million new cases in 2020.

  6. Stomach Cancer: Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, affected approximately 1.09 million people in 2020.

Causes and Risk Factors

  • Tobacco Use: Around one-third of cancer-related deaths are attributed to tobacco use.

  • High Body Mass Index (BMI): Obesity increases the risk of certain cancers.

  • Alcohol Consumption: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with cancer risk.

  • Diet: Low fruit and vegetable intake contribute to cancer development.

  • Physical Inactivity: Lack of exercise is a risk factor.

  • Infections: Infections from viruses (e.g., human papillomavirus) and bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori) can cause cancer.

Cell growth and division :Normal cells follow a tightly regulated process of growth and division. Cancer cells, however, escape these controls and divide uncontrollably.

Cell signaling :Cells communicate with each other through a complex network of signaling pathways. Mutations in these pathways can contribute to cancer development.

DNA repair :DNA damage is a normal part of life, but cells have mechanisms to repair this damage. When these mechanisms fail, mutations can accumulate and lead to cancer.

Angiogenesis:Tumors need a blood supply to grow and spread. Cancer cells can promote the growth of new blood vessels to support their expansion.

Metastasis:The ability of cancer cells to spread to other parts of the body is a hallmark of advanced cancer. Metastasis is a complex process that involves cancer cells detaching from the original tumor, invading surrounding tissues, and entering the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Understanding these processes is essential for developing new cancer therapies. For example, drugs that target specific signaling pathways or blood vessel growth can be used to stop cancer cells from growing or spreading.

Researchers in cancer biology are also working to develop new diagnostic tools that can detect cancer at an early stage, when it is most treatable. These tools may involve identifying genetic mutations or other biomarkers that are specific to cancer cells.

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